In the era of capsule machines and fully automatic coffee machines, one wonders how one could survive the day without it the last century or even millennia. From my contribution about the coffee history it is clear that coffee has a long history. Today I will take you on a journey through the coffee preparation history.
Mocha from the 9th century
- According to legend, monks from the province of Kaffa in the Abyssinian highlands in Ethiopia prepared an infusion of the yellow and red coffee cherries. This should probably have tasted more like today’s Cascara tea than after coffee.
- With the spreading in the Arab world and an Arab manuscript from Abd al-Kafir from 1587 the Mocha is probably the most original of all preparations.
- The first known devices for roasting coffee beans were thin, circular, often perforated pans of metal or porcelain, which were used in the 15th century in the Ottoman Empire
- With a long handle it was held over coals until the coffee was roasted. The beans were stirred with a slender spoon.
- Then, the beans were crushed with a mortar before brewing.
- The coffee was boiled in small pots with a long handle (like Ibrik, Cezve) or jugs.
- Between 1492 and 1650 there was the first cylinder roaster with a crank to keep the beans in motion.
- This was held over a coal stove or open fire and was also taken from Europe into the American colonies.
Filter Coffee from the 18th century
- In 1710 the French developed the filter process. Through deeper jugs the coffee ground did not come into the cup.
- From 1763, “Donmartin” linen filter bags were attached to a string that fit exactly into the jug neck.
- About 1800, the French developed the “dripping” method with the De Belloy jug, which owes its name to the Paris archbishop.
- In the 19th century, further patents were followed on jugs with a filter attachment called Biggin.
- The jugs were made of metals such as copper, brass, Britannia, silver, but also porcelain.
Vacuum, French Press, Espresso and Co. from the 19th century onwards.
- Vacuum coffee makers were also introduced to the market at the beginning of the 19th century. The steam pressure made the coffee very soft.
- Percolators were also used at this time. Here, the water or the resulting coffee is repeatedly passed through the coffee powder or the coffee already flows into another vessel at the first pass. The first percolator is attributed to Benjamin Thomson in 1806.
- 1850 presumably in France the French Press was invented.
- The espresso machine was also developed in the 19th century: from Lebrun‘s steam coffee machine from 1838, the Italians wrote it to Angelo Moriondo in 1884.
- Thanks to Luigi Bezzera, the first espresso machine with a portafilter has been in operation since 1901.
- The commercial roaster inventions patented by Burns at the end of the 19th century revolutionized the U.S. roasting industry, much like the innovations of inventors in Emmerich am Rhein greatly advanced commercial coffee roasting in Germany
- In 1903 and 1906, the first electric roasters were patented in the USA and in Germany.
- Since 1903, thanks to the Italians Bezzera and Pavoni, there are also express coffee machines that could brew 150 cups of coffee within an hour.
In 1908, Melitta Benz patented the paper coffee filter of the same name.
Since 1933, the Bialetti “Moka Express” has been the first espresso machine for private use based on the Percolator principle.
- In 1935 the “Illetta”, the first espresso machine with 9 bar pressure from Francesco Illy came onto the market.
- The electric drip filter coffee machines conquered many households in the 1970s, even if it was already patented in 1954.
- In 1985 the Swiss engineer Arthur Schmed developed the fully automated espresso coffee maschines with integrated grinder, water heater, pump and collecting tank.
- Senseo developed the first portion coffee machine (for pads / capsules) with Philips and the coffee supplier Douwe Egbert in 2001 to counter the price decline caused by the long-life filter coffee machines.
- In the development one can be glad that the retro trend goes back to hand brewing 😉